Professional Development

graphic of professional development keys

As teachers increase their conceptual understanding of mathematics, they can apply a variety of strategies to support students in acquiring foundational understanding. For the teacher, this includes not only a deeper understanding of the mathematical concepts but also having the pedagogical tools to be able to use effective instructional methodologies to reach all students.

NTN uses a Seven Level approach to professional development. All Seven Levels of Professional Development are necessary to successfully implement NTN methodologies, develop and deepen teachers’ content knowledge and pedagogy. Eliminating one of the levels could compromise the fidelity and success of the professional development model; therefore all seven levels are provided to each school in which we partner.

The Seven Levels of Professional Development are:

Anderson, C. W. (1989). The role of education in the academic disciplines in teacher education. In A. Woolforlk (Ed.), Research perspectives on the graduate preparation of teachers (pp. 88-107). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ball, D. L. (1990). The mathematical understanding that prospective teachers bring to teacher education. The Elementary School Journal, 90, 449-466.

Boaler, J. & Staples, M. (2008). Creating mathematical futures through an equitable teaching approach: The case of Railside School. The Teachers College Record, 110(3), 608-645.

Borasi, R., & Fonzi, J. (2002). Foundations: Professional development that supports school mathematics reform [Vol. 3]. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33, 3−15.

Borko, H., & Putnam, R. (1996). Learning to teach. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 673-708). New York: Macmillan.

Boyle, J. R., & Weishaar, M. (1997). The effects of expert-generated versus student- generated cognitive organizers on the reading comprehension of students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 12(4), 228-235.

Burns, M. (2003) Using math games in your teaching. Connect, November-December 2003. Retrieved September 22, 2011 from

Butler, F.M. Kit-hung Lee, Miller, S. P. & Pierce, T. (2001). Teaching mathematics to students with mild-to-moderate mental retardation: A review of the literature. Mental Retardation, 39, 1: 20–31.

Clarke, D. (1994). Ten key principles from research for the professional development of mathematics teachers. In D.B. Aichele & A.F. Coxford (Eds.), Professional development for teachers of mathematics: 1994 yearbook, (pp.37-48). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Cohen, D.K., & Hill, H.C. (1998). Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education.

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M.W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604.

Devlin, K. (2000). Finding your inner mathematician. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46, B5.

DuFour, R. (May, 2004). Schools as learning communities: What is a professional learning community? Educational Leadership, 61:8, 6-11.

Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms. Policy Brief OECD Observer (November 2005): 1-8.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2002). What is scientifically-based research on progress monitoring? (Technical report). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University.

Garret, M.S., Porter, A.C., Desimone, L., Birman, P.F., & Yoon, K.S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915-945.

Good, R., & Jefferson, G. (1998). Contemporary perspectives on curriculum-based measurement validity. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.), Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement (pp. 61–88). New York: Guilford Press.

Harrison, M., Harrison, B. (1986). Developing numeration concepts and skills. Arithmetic Teacher, 33, 18–21.

Hatch, (2005) Using Games in the Classroom. This article is taken from the introduction to “Geometry Games”, a photocopiable resource published by The Association of Teachers of Mathematics

Hudson, P., Lignugaris-Kraft, B., & Miller, T. Using content enhancements to improve the performance of adolescents with learning disabilities in content classes. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 8 (2), 106-126.

Kannold, T. (2005) Turning vision into action

Lambert, R. & Stylianou, D. (2013). Posing cognitively demanding tasks to all students. Mathematics Teaching the Middle School. 18(8).

Lambert, R. & Sugita, T. (2016). Increasing engagement of students with learning disabilities in mathematical problem-solving and discussion. Support for Learning, 31(4), 347-366. doe:10.1111/1467-9604.12142

Marzano, R., Pickering, D., Pollock, J. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: ACSD

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (1980). An Agenda for Action: Recommendations for School Mathematics of the 1980s. Reston, Virginia: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (1989). Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, Virginia: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, & Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Common Core State Standards for mathematics: Standards for Mathematical Practice

Newell A, Rosenbloom P. S. (1981). Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice. In: Anderson J R (ed.) Cognitive Skills and their Acquisition. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 1-51.

Nicol, David J. & Macfarlane-Dick, Debra (2006); Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Students in High Education, 31:2, 199-218.

Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (1999). National awards program for model professional development. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Porzio, D. T. (1994). The effects of differing technological approaches to calculus on students’ use and understanding of multiple representations when solving problems. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(10), 3128A. (University Microfilms No. AAI 9505274).

Research Spotlight on Homework. Retrieved 9/22/2011 NEA Reviews of the Research on Best Practices in Education.

Safer, N. and Fleischman, S. (2005). Research matters: how student progress monitoring improves instruction. Educational Leadership – How Schools Improve, 62, 81-83.

Thompson, C.L., & Zeuli, J.S. (1999). The frame and the tapestry: Standards-based reform and professional development. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (pp. 341-375). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Wilson, J., Fernandez, M., & Hadaway, N. (1993) Mathematical problem solving. Retrieved from University of Georgia, Department of Mathematics Education EMAT 4600/6600 Website:

Witzel, B.S. (2005). Using CRA to teach algebra to students with math difficulties in inclusive settings. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 3(2), 53-64.

Witzel, B. S., Mercer, C. D., & Miller, M. D. (2003). Teaching algebra to students with learning difficulties: An investigation of an explicit instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18, 121-131.